Titanium industry chain can be divided into the following four parts:
1 titanium ore, Jin Hongshi and other primary mineral processing, through the physical method to obtain a higher grade of concentrate.
2 through the processing and purification of the concentrate, the preparation of high purity titanium dioxide, used in titanium dioxide industry.
Four through the oxidation of titanium dioxide, reduction and other technological means to produce 3 titanium tetrachloride, the production of titanium sponge
4 by casting processing on sponge titanium, titanium ingots for crystal structure is compact, for the production of titanium and titanium alloy.
Sponge titanium refers to the use of magnesium or sodium reduction of four titanium chloride to obtain the purity of 98.5%-99.7% titanium sponge. Is the most important raw material in titanium industry production. Titanium sponge is the whole process of the titanium metal production of primary products, the need to get titanium ingot namely industrial pure titanium after further casting, and can be processed into the corresponding titanium or titanium alloy.
Preparation of sponge titanium: there are mainly magnesium thermal reduction method (Kroll) method, sodium reduction method (Hunter method) and molten salt electrolysis method. The advantage of magnesium reduction method is that magnesium can be recycled. In contrast, the product quality is better and the metal impurity content is low, but the production capacity of the single furnace is small, and the sodium consumption is large. And molten salt electrolysis is still in the stage of semi industrial experiment.
Titanium dioxide and its application
Titanium dioxide name titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a very stable oxides, has excellent optical and pigment performance, used mainly as a white inorganic pigment. It is non-toxic, best opaque, best whiteness and brightness, is considered to be the world's performance the best a white pigment, which is widely used in the coatings, plastics, paper, printing ink, chemical fiber, rubber, cosmetics and other industries.
Global distribution of titanium dioxide applications in the field of application of titanium dioxide in China.
Sulfuric acid method and the chlorination process titanium dioxide industry production method: sulfuric acid production of mature technology, simple equipment, but the drawback is that the production process and the serious environmental pollution; chlorination technology advanced, large capacity, high product quality, brightness and size narrow distribution range. At the same time, chlorine can also use cycle, the drawback is that the demand for raw materials is too strict, raw materials must be 90% - 95% TiO2 content of natural or synthetic rutile and titanium slag.
Process for producing titanium dioxide by sulfuric acid method
Process for producing titanium dioxide by sulfuric acid method
The production process of the chlorination process titanium dioxide
The production process of the chlorination process titanium dioxide
There are three kinds of crystal forms of titanium dioxide, rutile, anatase and plate. Plate titanium type can not be used as a pigment in the industry as the main use of the pigments are anatase and rutile titanium dioxide.
Anatase titanium dioxide with high purity, fine and uniform particles, good optical performance, strong refraction, high achromatic power, strong hiding power and low oil absorption, water dispersible advantages, mainly used in coating, printing ink, chemical fiber, rubber, glass, cosmetics, soap, plastic and paper making and other industrial. Rutile titanium dioxide powder not only has the advantages of anatase titanium dioxide, but also has better weatherability and hiding power, mainly used in advanced industrial paint, gloss latex paint, plastics, high tinting strength and fast requirement of rubber materials, senior paper coating layer and the wax paper, etc.. From the performance of the pigment, rutile titanium dioxide is superior to anatase titanium dioxide, rutile titanium dioxide in the surface coating treatment of products are mostly. In 2010, the total amount of rutile type titanium dioxide in China was 57%, far below the level of 90% in the world. The future of rutile titanium dioxide in China has a larger proportion of the lifting space.
At present, the titanium dioxide industry is experiencing three major adjustments: (1) the world titanium dioxide production growth is relatively slow, and the Asia Pacific region especially China's titanium dioxide production is growing rapidly, the world titanium dioxide industry in the Asia Pacific region especially China transfer trend is obvious; (2) with the downstream put forward higher requirements the performance of titanium dioxide, titanium dioxide coating processing has become an important means of all kinds of special type titanium dioxide, titanium dioxide industry continue to emerge from general goods to the direction of the development of special products (3) just unfolding; titanium dioxide consists of anatase and rutile type two types of anatase titanium dioxide though because of its high the price still occupy a part of market share, but to rutile titanium dioxide is the future development trend of the excellent performance of the industry is still. In the structure of China's titanium dioxide products, the proportion of rutile titanium dioxide has been increasing, accounting for about 57%, but still far below the world's 90% ratio. China's titanium dioxide product structure is actively to the direction of rutile titanium dioxide. In summary, China's titanium dioxide industry, especially the prospects for the special rutile titanium dioxide is still optimistic.
Application of titanium and titanium alloys
Titanium is the 20th century developed in the 1950s, a kind of important metal structure, the titanium alloy has low density, high specific strength, good corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, low, non-toxic non magnetic, welding, biological compatibility is good, surface decoration and other characteristics, are widely used in aviation, aerospace, chemical, petroleum, electric power, medical, construction, sporting goods and other fields. Many countries in the world have recognized the importance of titanium alloy materials, have been studied and developed, and have been applied in practice.
Application fields of titanium and titanium alloys
In 2011, the global commercial aviation, the proportion of consumption reached 46%, protection titanium material ratio is 9% (mainly military aviation), the aviation sector consumption ratio of titanium over 50%; industrial consumption ratio of titanium to 43 percent of emerging market consumption of titanium material ratio is 2%.
There are obvious differences in the demand structure of titanium products in the region.
There are obvious differences in the demand structure of titanium products in the region. In the United States and the European Union, especially in the United States, about 50% of the demand for titanium products from the aerospace and defense industries is in the aerospace and defense industries. In Japan, the industrial use of titanium from the chemical industry occupies a dominant position in demand. According to the Japanese titanium association statistics, aerospace only accounted for Japan's demand for titanium 2%-3%. And the situation is quite similar to Japan, most of the demand for titanium products from the chemical and energy fields, aerospace accounted for only 10%. Although China has become one of the titanium metal producer and consumer of the world's largest, but most of the production has been limited to lower grade titanium, used to use the frames, golf clubs or chemical industry oneself anti-corrosive pipes. But in recent years, the amount of titanium used in aerospace in Asia has increased significantly, visible, titanium market outlook is relatively bright.
Global titanium consumption structure of China Titanium consumption structure
In the aerospace industry, titanium is concentrated in the western countries, especially in the United States, and 60% of the titanium materials are used in this field. Asian countries, Japan and China in the field of titanium inputs are about 10%. But in recent years, with the rapid development of the aerospace industry in Asia, the consumption of titanium in the aerospace field will increase. From a global point of view, the aviation industry plays a decisive role in the titanium market, from the historical perspective, the titanium industry is closely related to the changes in the industry and the aviation industry.
Add new high demand on economic growth by 2011, the global titanium production reached 14.8 million tons, of which commercial aviation titanium about 6.4 million tons, the future of the global air transport demand is still huge, it is expected that in the next 20 years, new demand for aircraft in about 3 million or so, at the same time, a new plane of titanium on the old aircraft, is expected to 20 years in the commercial aircraft to titanium average demand will reach 40 tons / frame. According to the projections, the next 20 years global commercial aviation titanium demand of about 120 million tons, the annual compound growth rate of about 17%, with an average annual 6 million tons of titanium material demand, civil aviation titanium field will show rapid growth. Military aviation sector will also be a new opportunity; due to the global geopolitical situation is tight, the increase in military spending in the world, the military aviation sector is also expected to be a new demand.
The main uses of titanium alloys in the aircraft are as follows:
(1) reduce the weight of the structure, improve the efficiency of structure: advanced tactical and technical performance (such as supersonic aircraft) requirements for aircraft with relatively low structural weight coefficient (i.e.: the weight of the body structure / normal aircraft takeoff weight), and titanium alloy has the intensity to be close to the strong steel but characteristics of small density, instead of structural steel and high temperature alloy, greatly reduce the weight of the structure, but also can save costs; with engine, for example, statistical data shows, the quality of aircraft engine each lower one kilogram, the use cost can be reduced by about $220-440.
(2) with the use of high temperature parts requirements: titanium alloy has the characteristics of good heat resistance, such as Ti-6Al-4V used to work for long periods in 350 DEG C, so in the plane of the high temperature parts (such as the rear fuselage, etc.) can replace due to the high temperature performance does not meet the requirements of the aluminum alloy TC11 can work for long periods in 500 DEG C, in engine compressor parts can replace the high temperature alloy and stainless steel.
(3) met with composite structure to match the requirements: in order to reduce weight and meet the requirement for stealth and advanced aircraft extensive use of composite materials, titanium alloy and composite strength and stiffness matching better, can obtain very good results in weight loss. At the same time, due to the potential closer to, not easy to produce galvanic corrosion, so the corresponding parts of the structure of the piece, and a fastening a appropriate use of titanium alloys.
(4) in line with the requirements of high corrosion resistance and long life: titanium alloy has higher fatigue life and excellent corrosion resistance, can improve the structure of corrosion resistance and life, to meet the requirements of advanced aircraft engine for high reliability and long-life.
Military weapons development and procurement will continue toward the light, flexible direction, in order to meet the fighters to combat performance requirements, in addition to the use of advanced design technology must also be the amount of excellent performance of materials and advanced technology and manufacturing technology. A large selection of titanium alloy, improve the level of application of advanced titanium alloy is one of the important measures. Since the sixties of the 20th century, foreign military aircraft titanium volume increased year by year, the amount of titanium alloy in the European and American design of all kinds of advanced military fighter and bomber has stabilized at more than 20% and new models of titanium consumption accounted for ratio is significantly improved.
Reduce fuel consumption, reduce harmful waste (CO2, NOX, etc.) emissions have become one of the main driving force and direction of technological progress in the automotive industry. The study shows that lightweight is an effective measure to save fuel and reduce pollution. The quality of the car is reduced by 10%, the fuel consumption can be reduced by 8%-10%, and the waste gas emission can be reduced by 10%. In driving, the acceleration performance of the vehicle is improved, and the stability, noise and vibration of the vehicle are improved. Considering from the safety of the collision, after the light weight of the vehicle, the inertia is small, and the braking distance is reduced.
Lightweight materials, such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium and other alternative materials, such as aluminum, magnesium and titanium, are the preferred methods of lightweight. 2009 global automotive titanium has reached 3000 tons. Titanium in the application of the car has many years of history the current car almost all use the titanium, the Japanese car with titanium has more than 600 tons, with the development of the global automotive industry, the car with titanium is still rapidly increasing.
Advantages of using titanium are: to reduce weight, reduce fuel consumption; improve the power transmission efficiency, reduce noise; reduce vibration, reduce the load; improve the durability of the car and environmental protection.
Titanium bone screw titanium has a wide range of applications in the medical field. Titanium is close to human bone, and has good biocompatibility and no toxic side effect to human body. Human implant is a special functional material which is closely related to human life and health. Compared with other metal materials, the use of titanium and titanium alloy has the following advantages: 1 light weight; low elastic modulus; 3 non magnetic; 4 non toxic; 5 corrosion resistance; 6 high strength and toughness. The amount of titanium alloy used in surgical implants is growing at an annual rate of 5%-7%. The manufacturing of titanium and titanium alloy femoral bones , hip joint, humeral, skull, knee joint, elbow joint, shoulder joint, palm refers to joints, jaw and valvular heart, kidney distinguishes the membrane, vessel dilator, plywood, prosthesis, fastening screws hundreds of metal parts transplant to the human body and achieved good results, the medical profession was given a high evaluation.
Titanium has excellent corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and process performance, which is widely used in many sectors of the national economy. Especially in the chemical production, with titanium instead of stainless steel, nickel based alloys and other rare metals as corrosion resistant materials. This to increase the yield, improve the quality of products, prolonging the service life of the equipment, reduce consumption, reduce energy consumption, reduce the cost, to prevent pollution, to improve working conditions and raise labor productivity has very important significance.
Titanium metal has become one of the main anti-corrosion materials in chemical equipment, and in the chemical plant has established his corrosion resistance. As an ideal material in chemical equipment, titanium is also getting more and more attention of engineering and technical personnel.
After years of promotion, titanium and its alloys have been widely used as a kind of excellent corrosion resistant materials in chemical production. The application of titanium equipment has been from the original soda and caustic soda industry extended to chlorate, ammonium chloride, urea, organic synthesis, dyes, inorganic salt, pesticide, synthetic fiber, fertilizer, and fine chemical industry, the kinds of equipment have been developed from small, single to large, diverse.
The investigation results show that the titanium heat exchanger is 57%, the titanium anode is 20%, the titanium vessel is 16%, and the other is 7%. In the chemical industry with "two bases", chemical equipment, the maximum amount of titanium heat exchanger.
In recent years, the production technology of titanium material in our country is increasing rapidly, aerospace titanium, the military titanium, titanium and other vehicles are very rapid growth, especially in the aerospace field, there is a trend to catch up with the chemical industry. Overall, the technical content of titanium used in chemical industry is small, the product added value is low, and the proportion of titanium used in chemical industry will inevitably decline gradually.
With the development of science and technology and the increasing depletion of land resources, the human development and utilization of the ocean has been mentioned on the agenda. Titanium has excellent corrosion resistance to seawater, and it is widely used in the field of sea water desalination, ship, ocean thermal energy development and seabed resources exploitation.
Icebreaker early in the sixties of the 20th century, China began to research on the application of titanium and titanium alloy in the ship and ocean engineering equipment, and a lot of work has basically formed the more grades, different performance, specifications complete marine titanium alloy system. Due to the characteristics of titanium and titanium alloy itself has the has unique advantages in application of the ship and marine equipment, so it is widely used in nuclear submarines, submersibles, atomic icebreaker, hydrofoil boats, hovercraft, minesweepers and propeller, sea water, condensers, heat exchangers, etc..
In the application of ships, at present, the amount of titanium used in our country is very small, which accounts for no more than 1% of the total weight of the ship
The development potential of titanium and titanium alloys in the field of ship and marine engineering equipment is great. Moreover in the seawater desalination and coastal power stations, due to our country present desalination and coastal power stations, huge market demand, to further reduce the cost of titanium alloy and improve the stability of product quality, market prospects for the application of titanium will be very broad.
Titanium is widely used in daily life, it can be said everywhere, such as golf head, bicycle frame, tennis racket, wheelchair, glasses frame and so on will be applied to titanium.
Based on the characteristics of titanium lightweight and high strength used in sports, tennis racket, badminton racket from the earliest gradually extended to the golf club and sports car racing. In 2008 China's leisure sports accounted for 13% of total consumption, the only golf club and clubs with more than 1000 tons of titanium content. Bicycle frame made of titanium alloy are also popular, there are nearly 50 companies producing titanium bicycle price, the United States is already the largest producer and consumer of titanium bicycle. The characteristics of titanium light is applied to in the spectacle frame and titanium is also not easy to skin allergies, and titanium surface by anodic treatment can have a colorful, so from the beginning of the eighties of the 20th century began to use in the frame.
In recent years, titanium in the human daily life used in the continuous expansion, and fast development, application technology has become more mature and perfect. In the application of titanium products of daily life, walking in front of the United States and japan.