The national theater was made of titanium!
By using titanium roof buildings, began in 1973, the golden goddess of early sucking agency roof in Saga Oita Prefecture sekimachi, an area of about 50 square meters, the use of titanium 0.4t; then use 0.3mm thick Shibuya power Hall plate of 720 square meters; Kobe City Suma Beach Aquarium construction area of 2500 square meters, with titanium 12t; Niigata aquarium titanium 4.95t; Mito art museum with titanium 4.95t; children in Mie city construction area of 1113 square meters, with a titanium 7.5t; Kawasaki public gallery construction area of 3500 square meters, with a titanium 21t light of the world civilization; Shizuoka golden roof, teach Temple keel and a gable herringbone plate, construction area of 35000 square meters 90t, titanium; Fukuoka rotary open close type dome, the diameter of 210m, construction area of 48500 square meters, the use of 0.3mm 100t titanium plate;
Van Gogh Museum in Holland, Amsterdam, using 0.5mm pure titanium 4.3t;
Hongkong MTRC central station, with an area of 6500 square meters, uses 0.4mm pure titanium.
In addition to the roof, and the building outer wall, curtain wall, ceiling, barge, harbor facilities, bridge, tunnel, decoration, monument, rail, pipeline, anticorrosion coating.
In 1997 officially opened, with specific structure of Chi Mei modeling, and new material won worldwide attention by the press, exclaimed as a "miracle" of the Guggenheim Art Museum (Spain) with the amount of titanium is 80t, which has been the home of many of the world's attention in the construction, and the country began to use.
1, why choose titanium for building?
1.1 titanium has good corrosion resistance. It can withstand the atmospheric conditions such as urban pollution, acid rain, marine environment, industrial radiation, volcanic ash and so on. It is especially suitable for use in marine climatic environment and industrialized areas.
The density of 1.2 titanium is very small, 4.5g/cm3, only 57% of steel, 50% of copper, 1.7 times of aluminum, but similar to the strength of steel. Therefore, titanium as a building component can greatly reduce the weight of the structure, easy to transport and install, reduce the load-bearing capacity of the main structure, reduce the center of gravity of the building, and improve the overall seismic capacity of the building.
The thermal expansion coefficient of 1.3 titanium is 9.0*10-6/, which is about 50% of that of stainless steel and 30% of that of aluminum. It is similar to the expansion coefficient of traditional building materials such as glass, concrete, brick, cement and stone. It is suitable for melting with traditional building materials. In construction, titanium can be used as an integral whole, and no expansion joint is needed to compensate for thermal expansion and contraction.
The surface morphology of 1.4 titanium can be obtained by shot peening, sandblasting and embossing. In addition, through the atmospheric oxidation method, anodic oxidation method, chemical oxidation method can make the titanium surface changes a variety of colors and patterns, to meet people's pursuit of art.
1.5 titanium corrosion resistance makes it unlike stainless steel, aluminum building materials, after ten years or so to repair and maintenance. Although the cost of titanium processing and installation is higher than that of stainless steel, but its service life is long, from the long-term cost point of view, titanium building materials is the most economical.
1.6 easy to be processed into thin sheet, and not easy to deformation, welding performance is good. Standard metal forming tools, processing methods and techniques are suitable for shear, molding, mechanical and Ti connections. Titanium material can be connected by the universal TIG welding process, and the self-healing film of titanium material can prevent welding from being destroyed.
1.7 titanium is a silver gray metal that maintains its hue at room temperature. The temple often chooses the titanium material to make the roof, one of the important reasons is also because the titanium roof gives the primitive simplicity, the dignified, the atmosphere impression. In addition, in recent years, some Japanese private buildings such as houses, tea houses, etc., also use titanium building materials, which are all related to the noble, low-key, gentle and quiet impression of titanium.
1.8 titanium non-toxic, will not decompose metal ions into groundwater, can be recycled 100%, no pollution to the environment. The thermal conductivity of titanium is equivalent to that of stainless steel. It is 1/20 of aluminum alloy and 1/8 of copper alloy. It has the effect of maintaining the temperature of building. It is a rare green environmental protection material.
2. General situation of titanium used in construction field in China
Titanium is still in its infancy in the field of construction in China, and titanium has only been used in the construction industry for more than 10 years. Although the time is not long, but the characteristics of titanium materials in China's construction industry has been playing incisively and vividly.
The shell of the National Grand Theater is made up of more than 18000 pieces of titanium plate, with an area of more than 30000 square meters. Only 4 of the more than 18000 pieces of titanium plate are of the same shape. Special oxidation treatment of titanium plate, the surface of its metallic luster is very texture, and 15 years unchanged color.
Since mid 80s, although BaoTi group has continued to make some titanium model and sculpture, which also lack such as "dolphin and man" fine works. But since the National Theatre led to the Hangzhou Grand Theater, Hefei Grand Theatre building started to use a lot of titanium, it is disappointing that these buildings using titanium are basically imported from Japan, Nippon Steel Company, MITSUBISHI Chemical Corporation, Kobe Iron & Steel Co. Ltd, and did not use the titanium material processing enterprises domestic products. Faced with such a large amount of titanium building, China Titanium processors but lost opportunities, which have caused the titanium industry personnel examination.
Facing the booming titanium building, China's titanium enterprises also feel the pressure. As the largest titanium processing enterprises, BaoTi group has been actively to the development of titanium materials, and achieved certain results in the production of large grain titanium gold plate. It is urgent to speed up the research and development of titanium building materials, to develop varieties of titanium building materials, and to reduce production costs.