Application and recent trend of titanium in home automobiles
Because of the fine characteristics of titanium, more and more occasions are being used in automobiles, but the application is hindered by higher prices. The following focuses on the status and recent trends in the application of titanium in family cars, and introduces the two applications that become the breakthrough point of expanding applications.
The metallic titanium is characterized by its high strength, low density and excellent corrosion resistance. It can be used in the power transmission and chassis parts of automobiles. These applications are mainly aimed at titanium is a lightweight alloy, and can replace the stainless steel, car weight reduction, is expected to improve the performance of the car itself.
The weight reduction makes the design of the car very resilient, both for sports cars and for family cars. So far, sports car engine manufacturers have chosen titanium as raw material to make cars less lightweight for valves and connecting shafts. The performance improvement is shown in the decrease of the distance, the output power and the deformation of the connecting parts.
The advantage of using titanium is that the power transmission effect or weight is reduced, the fuel economy is saved, the noise and vibration of engine is reduced and the load of components is reduced, so the durability of the vehicle can be improved. Titanium can be used as valves, connecting shafts, valves, springs and support appliances in car parts.
The use of titanium engine outside: for example, the use of titanium chassis, can reduce vehicle weight, save fuel. Most striking are the use of titanium in parts, such as suspension springs, exhaust devices, crankshafts, and other fastener classes. The biggest obstacle to the large use of titanium materials in sports cars and cars remains the price issue. The cost of titanium material is compared with the processing cost of other parts, as shown in table 1.
Cost comparison between titanium and other materials (unit: US$/Ib)
Titanium aluminum steel
Metal ingot 2.000.681.10
The world titanium market is about 45000mt/ years old, half of which is in the United states. The world's total car production is about 60 million units / year, the United States accounted for 1/4. Therefore, if half of the world's automobiles are made of titanium, the consumption of titanium will increase by 30% depending on the amount of titanium used in 500g at about 1. In this way, the amount of titanium used in automobiles is considerable.
Application of titanium in home car
Timet, America's largest titanium producer, lists the advantages of using titanium as a component:
(1) the adoption of titanium material has solved some practical problems;
(2) coordination with the market;
(3) the related technology of titanium material application;
(4) available technologies can be used;
(5) the use of titanium material has new value.
Titanium was originally used in the mass production of premium NSXV-6 cars, followed by a Japanese TOYOTA double door convertible in 1998 using a titanium valve. The intake valve of the car uses a Ti-6Al-4V/TiB alloy produced by powder metallurgy process, and the exhaust valve adopts a heat-resistant Ti-Al-Zr-Sn-Nb-Mo-Si/TiB alloy. The car's engine is 2000cc, using 1 27g intake valve and 24g exhaust valve 8, a car with a total of 408g titanium material. When the raw material is steel, the weight is 40.0g and 44.6g, and the total weight of the valve is more than 2 times of that of the titanium. The valve spring of this kind of car is also made of titanium, its weight is reduced from 43g to 36g. The Toyota Corporation's new car initially produced 4000 units, half of which were made of titanium.
In addition, examples of titanium used by other Japanese companies are Honda, S2000 and R. Some European cars are in mass production, and the connecting shaft is made of titanium.
There are 2 cases of titanium used in family cars. The exhaust valve such as GM's Chevrolet Z06 car applications, reduce the total weight is conducive to improve the performance of. Titanium 2 1 group muffler, weight 11.7g, weight reduced by 41%, help to improve the performance of the car. And the life of the muffler is semi permanent.
Timet and Arvin Meritor have developed new Timetal exhaust grade titanium alloys (similar to those of Ti2 grade) in accordance with market and existing technologies. The material was tested by the two company in accordance with the contract and its performance was confirmed. During the test, the manufacturing techniques such as punching, bending, cold rolling, forming and welding have been improved for the purpose of reducing the weight of the titanium.
Compared with steel, titanium has low elastic modulus and small density. It is suitable for springs. Titanium springs are widely used in Boeing's aerospace industry, but Timet thinks these components are expensive to use in cars. Therefore, the company and aerospace parts manufacturers jointly developed automotive titanium springs, and has been strongly supported by the German VW company. Timet and VW are automotive parts manufacturers that use standard steel spring manufacturing equipment to produce titanium springs. Part of VW's chosen processors MuhrundBender will spring steel manufacturing equipment of the company for the manufacture of titanium spring transformation. As a result, the use of low-cost beta alloy Ti-4.5Fe-6.8Mo-1.5Al reduced the price by 50% compared to the existing beta alloy. The spring ratio of this material is reduced by 1/3 with the weight of the same steel spring, and the optimum fatigue life is obtained. The 2001 LupoFSI sedan carrying this titanium spring reduced its total weight by 81.6kg compared to the standard FSI. The LupoFSI sedan is the world's lowest fuel vehicle for 48mpg (MPG / gallon) and is available for sale in the European market. VW, the 2001 model of this kind, has an annual production capacity of 3500 units.