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Present Situation And Prospect Of Titanium And Titanium Alloy For Automobile

Source: China titanium industry, 2014 third

Nowassay , the car has more than one hundred years of history, is an indispensable means of transportation in our lives. Light, high strength and other properties of titanium has long been the focus of the automotive manufacturers.


 Titanium has been used for many years on the car, and the car has been used almost all over the past year. However, the importance of the cost of the general car on the use of titanium material is the future of the subject. The car (including motorcycle, car discount) is a new developing market of titanium.



The advantages of using titanium as the material of automotive components: high strength, small density, modulus of elasticity is about half that of steel, thermal expansion coefficient is low, about half of the stainless steel and aluminum, non magnetic, thermal conductivity is low, no pollution to the environment etc.. In addition, in the automotive industry with titanium, can greatly reduce the weight of the car, reduce its fuel consumption, improve the efficiency of the automobile work, reduce noise. According to the data, each cut 10% of car body weight can reduce exhaust emissions by 10% and 7% of the fuel consumption saving, so lightweight car will play to the efficacy of the "energy saving, environmental protection," killing two birds with one stone. Titanium is the most ideal metal to achieve weight loss.


Application of 1 titanium alloy in automobile


Titanium alloy car parts are mainly: the TiAl production of the turbine rotor blades, with Ti-6Al-4V alloy and other connecting rod, valve, etc.. In order to realize the low cost, the powder metallurgy method is used to add the TiB particle dispersion titanium matrix MMC in the Ti-6Al-4Sn-4Zr-1Nb-1Mo-0.2Si-0.3C alloy matrix, and the engine valve is manufactured by using this material. 


This is an example of the application as a new titanium base material for automotive engine valves. In addition to the connecting rod and engine valves, the original low cost beta titanium alloy LCB TIMETAL manufacturing suspension spring is also the initial case. Recent progress in the development of low cost titanium alloys for engine valves and exhaust valves. Especially the motorcycle exhaust system (silencer) on titanium alloy increased demand, so exhaust system with the development of low cost alloy is more popular...

1.1 valve

With titanium alloy production of automobile valve, not only can reduce the weight, prolong service life, and high reliability, but also can save fuel. Exhaust valve in addition to the requirements of heat resistant, wear-resistant, but also lead and cobalt. The United States manufacturers use titanium alloy, the exhaust valve is more common, the use of Ti-6Al-4V alloy intake valve, exhaust valve is used Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zn-2Mo alloy. Japan's Hitachi company made the sintering inlet valve has been supplied to Japan's auto industry market.


Howmet Foundry Company in the United States with a continuous casting method of production of valves, each valve has a 1/4 weight of titanium, is expected to have 200 million new car on the potential market every year, there are 80 million valve replacement market.


1.2 valve seat


In motor vehicles and motor vehicles, the most widely used titanium components is the valve seat of the annual production of more than 250 thousand, the general use of Ti-6Al-4V alloy production, Japan also used Ti-5Al-2Cr-1Fe alloy production. Because the shape is simple and small, so there are mechanical plus type is easy to make, the cost is also cheaper. Special surface treatment is not necessarily required, and the steel valve seat can be reduced by 10~12.

1.3 Ti-connecting rod


Connecting rod with titanium alloy to reduce the weight of the engine is the most effective, can greatly improve the performance. Connecting rod material is mainly Ti-6Al-4V, other such as Ti-7Al-4Mo, Ti-4Al-2Sn-4Mn and so on are also in the development of.


1.4 crankshaft and other engine parts


Japan is trial Ti-5Al-2Cr-Fe alloy crankshaft, this curve due to the need to carry out anti adhesive treatment, the current is not practical. Other engine components such as rocker arm, valve spring and connecting rod of the lower bolt can also be made of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

Japan developed specifically for easy cutting Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy crankshaft has been used for Honda 280 horsepower 3.0-liter V6NSX type luxury car, and with the same fatigue strength of steel crankshaft, weight reduced by 30%, the engine speed increase 700R /. These research results of application show that, titanium on the car has been accepted and expanded the amount.


1.5 return airway


Using titanium nozzle / back tracheal component from sulfur chloride and exhaust gas discharge caused by corrosion, pitting corrosion occurred on the exhaust system is not, even in welding and no corrosion, and traditional exhaust system materials and stainless steel compared to can reduce 40% of the weight and improve the fuel economy of material, with rapid acceleration and shorter braking distance. Because of the high cost of titanium, American Titanium Metal Company (Timet) developed a special surface treatment methods, so that the production of parts to help meet the cost of car manufacturers standards. The new Chevrolet Corvette Z06 cars have been applied to titanium tube.


1.6 suspension spring


Titanium springs are lightweight, corrosion resistant, and low shear modulus in comparison with steel springs for general motors. Timet is designed to meet the cost and part assembly requirements of automotive suspension springs manufacturers, which retain the excellent properties of aerospace titanium alloy springs, and greatly reduce the cost. The initial production amount is very small, is used in the European Volkswagen Automobile Company's new FSI Lupo gear suspension spring. Timet and Volkswagen announced in January 2001, in the FSI Lupo 2001 vehicles using titanium suspension spring, the model is expected to produce 3500 cars.

A spring made of titanium can be reduced by 70% to 60 of the weight of steel. In a typical American built 6 to 5 home car, by the use of 4 suspension springs, each car can lose weight 9kg~13.6kg.


The 1.7 muffler muffler of titanium is only 5~6kg, far less than the stainless steel muffler, simple operation. Japanese cars in the field of demand for titanium (1999 actual demand of 457t) basically all is for silencer, mainly is a large car (900cc above) use. Japan's Honda, SUZUKI and other four large manufacturers have been using titanium silencer. Titanium is mainly used for large-scale automobile silencer and individual medium-sized cars. Is the evaluation of titanium corrosion resistance, strength and surface design etc.. 


GM in 2000 Chevrolet Corvette 206 cars have used a heavy respectively titanium muffler and exhaust pipe system instead of the original weight of 20kg stainless steel system and intensity invariant. Weight loss of 41%, the car is accelerated, flexible operation and save fuel. 1.8 the body and other parts of the United States Timet company that titanium can be used in other forms of components of household vehicles to greatly reduce the weight and improve durability, including engine component, a driving gear parts, suspension system and structure. Such as shock absorption buffer center rod, a lug ti nut and bolt, a control rod, fasteners, a driven shaft, bumper bracket, door protruding into the beam and brake caliper piston, engine connecting rod, pin shaft bolt, valve, valve spring and bearing seat etc.. 

Compared with titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V manufacturing clutch disc, pressure plate and transmission components, has recently started to manufacture of titanium alloy shell with high spin forming, and the steel shell can be greatly reduced the impact of the flywheel damage, so that the buffer becomes easy. Japanese scholars have designed a new combination of sliding mode, the undershoot type formed developed another car wheel. 1.9 fasteners can be used for many types of fasteners, titanium replacement. In the future, it is feasible and necessary to have the titanium fasteners in the light transport. 2 the research status of titanium and titanium alloys is the largest in the United States and the United States and Japan is the 2.1 largest in the United States. First of all, the United States attaches great importance to the application of titanium in the car, such as Timet set up a special car factory to develop automotive parts. American has manufactured the racing car with titanium intake valves, exhaust valves, valve retainer and rod components, the annual special in the car on the titanium of... 2.2 Japan early 20 years ago put titanium used in racing and sports car, but not used in the emphasis on the cost of general small bus. Such as the Nissan R382 by the use of the valve made of titanium alloy in Japan, winning the contest.


 At present, the application of titanium and its alloy in automobile mainly has the engine component spring, the car pole, the connecting rod, the standard part, the wheel, the power valve and so on. According to Japan's experience, the use of 0.8~0.9kg/ in the car power valve is equivalent to the effect of weight loss 20kg/ Taiwan 2.3 Taiwan: China is vigorously carrying out the promotion of titanium. 


First through websites, newspapers, magazines and promotion and other forms, the application of titanium knowledge spread to every corner of society... 3 cars with titanium low cost titanium than aluminum and steel prices higher only is and relates many reasons for smelting and processing cost (refer to table 3). Melting cost basically is the separation of titanium and oxygen to the energy cost and processing cost is generally refers to the technology of low temperature processing cost and the polishing cost the most striking is the use of permanent mold near net shape casting and powder metallurgy (P / M) method. P/M method should be adopted in terms of cost. Opening P/M titanium parts in the car using the precedent of the TOYOTA Altezza car on the valve. 

At present, the low cost metal powder mixture can be used to obtain the sufficient strength of the Ti-6Al-4V automobile parts after pressing and sintering. In this case, there is no need to carry out HIP (hot hydrostatic compression molding) and other unnecessary compression process, the cost will not rise. At the same time, the strengthened titanium alloy (TiB2 or TiC) with improved rigidity and wear resistance was developed. TiC alloy occasions, the cost of powder is $4/kg ($1.80/1b). Titanium based metal matrix composites (MMC) have been used in connecting rod, valve, piston, etc.. Add 12%TiC to strengthen the, maximum weight of 44%. 4 of our country automobile with titanium market forecasts and recommendations 4.1 vehicle with titanium market outlook to a new generation of automotive design pay more attention to reduce weight and reduce fuel consumption, reduce engine noise and vibration, to meet the environmental requirements. 


In this trend, light metal titanium will become a major application areas of the future of cars. However, titanium parts in automotive applications are still very few. With the economic development and the cost reduction of titanium, there will be more engineering designers will choose to use titanium as part of the automobile. Titanium will eventually occupy an important position in the automobile production industry. 4.2 of China's automobile titanium market to predict the broad market for China's automotive titanium. 


First, the Chinese economy itself is still a certain degree of development space, per capita disposable income, the degree of urbanization will promote the automobile industry to maintain stable growth. According to the forecast, to 2020, Chinese car retains the quantity may reach about 2 million cars, a car production and sales in 2013 to 23.74 million - 241.8 million estimated 2014 in 23.85 million - 242.9 million, imports of 114 million, exports of 103 million vehicles, the growth rate of 8% - 10%, spare parts related industry will sustainable development... For our country automobile with titanium: automobile with titanium promotion also need long time, first from the high-end market entry, and then gradually to the low-end models and foreign market penetration. Vigorously develop the low cost titanium, this is the key to promote the use of titanium. The autonomous development ability of domestic auto parts should be improved.

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