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Titanium
Apr 20, 2016

                                

                                Titanium


Titanium (TI is a transition metal, in the past for a long period of time people always think that it is a


 rare metal. Since the 1940s, titanium and billion complexes are widely used in aircraft, rockets,

 

missiles, satellites, spacecraft, ships, military, medical and chemical and petroleum field. Scientists 


predict that: metal titanium in the 21st century will be the metallurgical industry is one of the most 


important products.


Human in the use of the historical process of metal, copper, iron, aluminum, the fourth will be widely


 applied in the metal elements is what kind of?? the metal has been scientists predict that as the 


titanium. This is because titanium has the advantage of high melting point, high hardness, strong plasticity, low density, resistance to corrosion, etc..



Discovery and properties of titanium



Titanium is in 1791 by the British Minister gley.1795 Goyle find Martin klaproth's analysis of a rutile ore


, recognize that this is a kind of metal oxide, and the metal is named as titanium, titanium due to easy and


 common metal alloy formation, after the discovery of many years, many people attempt to in its compound it


 separated, did not succeed until 1910 by the American chemist Hunter is pure TiCl4 and Na metals together


 into high pressure resistant steel cylinder, the cylinder is heated to red hot, after cooling, wash away


 the NaCl purity of 99.9% titanium . Since entering 70 age, titanium the annual output is still rising 


steadily at a rate of 15%. Such as the UK, the demand of titanium material in 10 years the growth of at 


least 800%.



(HF+HCl high characteristics of 180kg/mm3. strength of titanium appearance like steel, with silver light. 


Titanium and titanium alloy tensile strength of Ti is small (4.51g/cm3 hardness melting (1675


 DEG C),high purity titanium has good plasticity, but when there are impurities become brittle and 


hard. At room temperature, titanium and chlorine, dilute sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid,

 but can be 


hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, molten alkali erosion. Titanium is easily dissolved in sulfuric acid, 


titanium is the most outstanding performance of seawater corrosion resistance is strong, some people will be


 a piece of titanium sank to the bottom of the sea, five years later, take a look at and above adhered to 


many small animals and plants on the sea floor, but there is no rust, according to the light shining!



Two, titanium and its main compounds


Titanium has exceed the performance and storage volume all the big (in the earth's crust accounted for 0.42%


 of the total weight, ranked seventh in the world metal, containing titanium mineral up to more than 70, in


 sea water content is 1ug/L. In the seabed nodules also contains the characteristics of large amount of


 titanium). Titanium is used to develop quickly at present, has been widely used in aircraft, rockets,


 missiles, satellites, spacecraft, ships, military industry, light industry, chemical industry, textile, 


medical and chemical field.



Very fine titanium powder is a good fuel for rocket; the corrosion resistance of titanium, than the commonly


 used stainless steel strong 15 times, service life than that of the stainless steel long 10 times above.


 In the film negative and positive production and need to various acid alkali and other drug use, they of


 printing equipment corrosion is very serious, photofinishing equipment, the gear can be used for a maximum


 of a few months, 1980 Xi'an Film Studio trial titanium and the equipment running more than a year of time,


 gear and no corrosion.



Application of titanium in surgical operation, is also very attractive. At present, surgical bone is made of


 stainless steel, stainless steel has a drawback, is to put the bone healing after the stainless steel 


sheet is taken out, this is a very painful thing. Otherwise, stainless steel with rust will cause harm to 


the human body. If you use titanium the "artificial bones" will make the Department of orthopedics 


technology completely changed. In the first place with titanium plate damage, and titanium screws,


 after a few months, the bone will re grow in the hole and screw titanium sheet, new muscle fibers


 wrapped in thinfilm of titanium, titanium bone like real bones. And intimate, the supporting and reinforcing 


effect, therefore, titanium was praised as "biophile metal". Now it has been applied to the knee joint, shoulder


 joint, rib joints, skulls, bones, heart valve active clamp and so on.

In the steel industry, a small amount of titanium is good for the removal of nitrogen and sulfur removal 

agent.

Particularly valuable is the titanium dioxide non-toxic. Now every year used for titanium dioxide pigments 


hundreds of thousands of tons. The second oxygen than titanium is a kind of precious white pigment, called 


titanium. Titanium white and Flake White Mask performance and zinc lasting performance, it is the substance


 of the world's most white, 1 gram of titanium dioxide can put more than 450 square centimeter area painted


white.


Due to titanium dioxide has the properties of high melting point and is often used to manufacture fire-


resistant glass, glaze, enamel, pottery clay, high temperature of the experimental vessels.


How to develop seawater uranium resources is a big problem, seawater containing 40 million tons of uranium, 


from 1956 onwards, people began to find one of the most promising uranium sorption agent hydrated titanium 


dioxide, from the development of the set with titanium dioxide as the basis of the marine uranium extraction


 technology, per gram of adsorbent has reached the level of 1 mg uranium adsorption.


Titanium tetrachloride in the moist air will emit a lot of white smoke. Because it has the characteristic, 


in the military it is commonly used as artificial fog agent. Especially in the ocean, vapor, a titanium 


tetrachloride, smoke like a white wall, blocking the enemy's line of sight.



Barium titanate crystal is widely used in ultrasonic instruments and underwater detector. This is because 


with a pressurized cut change shape, will produce electricity; once the electricity will change shape. Put 


the barium titanate in the ultrasonic, pressure will produce current, by its current size can measuring 


intensity of ultrasonic known; instead, by means of a high-frequency current through it, you can generate 


ultrasonic waves.



In gold decoration crafts and daily necessities, due to their hardness is low, easy to puncture and wear, 


not durable. When depositing a layer of titanium nitride on the surface of these substances, the appearance


 of almost and gold 


In the steel industry, a small amount of titanium is good for the removal of nitrogen and sulfur removal 


agent.



Particularly valuable is the titanium dioxide non-toxic. Now every year used for titanium dioxide pigments 


hundreds of thousands of tons. The second oxygen than titanium is a kind of precious white pigment, called


 titanium. Titanium white and Flake White Mask performance and zinc lasting performance, it is the 


substance of the world's most white, 1 gram of titanium dioxide can put more than 450 square centimeter area 


painted white.


Due to titanium dioxide has the properties of high melting point and is often used to manufacture fire-


resistant glass, glaze, enamel, pottery clay, high temperature of the experimental vessels.



How to develop seawater uranium resources is a big problem, seawater containing 40 million tons of uranium,


 from 1956 onwards, people began to find one of the most promising uranium sorption agent hydrated titanium 


dioxide, from the development of the set with titanium dioxide as the basis of the marine uranium extraction


 technology, per gram of adsorbent has reached the level of 1 mg uranium adsorption.



Titanium tetrachloride in the moist air will emit a lot of white smoke. Because it has the characteristic,


 in the military it is commonly used as artificial fog agent. Especially in the ocean, vapor, a titanium tetrachloride, smoke like a white wall, blocking the enemy's line of sight.



Barium titanate crystal is widely used in ultrasonic instruments and underwater detector. This is because 


with a pressurized cut change shape, will produce electricity; once the electricity will change shape. Put 


the barium titanate in the ultrasonic, pressure will produce current, by its current size can measuring 


intensity of ultrasonic known; instead, by means of a high-frequency current through it, you can generate


 ultrasonic waves.



In gold decoration crafts and daily necessities, due to their hardness is low, easy to puncture and wear, 


not durable. When depositing a layer of titanium nitride on the surface of these substances, appearance and


 gold coating almost exactly the same, and more wear-resistant than gold and hard alloy, the coating is 


hailed as having "never wear".



Organic titanium polymer can be used as surfactant, dispersing agent, anti water agent or anti rust age


nt.

Three human use of the four series of hydrogen storage metal and titanium is one, is relatively cheap a, but


 at present, people have not found a more ideal "hydrogen storage metal", once that problem is solved, 

people can use hydrogen as fuel.


"Titanium aircraft" can reduce the body weight of 5 tons, passengers more than 100. In a new type of jet

 

engine, titanium alloy accounted for the weight of the whole engine 18 ~ 25%; in the new supersonic 


aircraft, the use amount of titanium accounted for almost 95% of the total weight of the entire body 


structure to if there is no titanium alloy development, it is very difficult to the supersonic aircraft.



Made of titanium submarines, not only than the steel submarine durable and dive into greater depth. Titanium 


submarines can dive up to 4500 meters below, which is steel submarine cannot exceed the limits. With 


titanium manufacturing ships, warships, and without painted, in the sea sailing a few years it will not 


rust. Due to titanium is not ferromagnetic material, will not be found magnetic mine. This is particularly


 important in the military, if there is no heat resistant steel titanium tempered, currently used 


conventional weapons rifles and machine guns of life can only is the initial 4.5 seconds.



The use of titanium and zirconium on the strong absorption of air, you can remove the air, resulting in 


vacuum. Made of titanium zirconium alloy vacuum pump, can be pumped into the air only 1/1000000000.



Titanium niobium alloy is an ideal superconducting material. Tsinghua University, using the principle of 


optical interference and ion nitriding titanium processing into a clear picture, clear hierarchy of 


mountains and rivers ink painting.



In the currently used the most common two kinds of stainless steel, chromium, nickel, titanium, 1881 type


 (CR 18%, 8% nickel, titanium 1%) is most used in industry of.



Titanium carbide (TIC) quite like iron carbide, with metallic luster. It has a higher melting point and 


higher hardness than cementite. So, it has a practical application value.



The food, color, fragrance and taste, which are preserved by titanium ware, can be used for a long time; 


titanium made cooking utensils are light, and will not rust, the most scientific and sanitary.



High pressure vessel made of titanium alloy, can withstand the pressure of 2500 atmospheres.



Titanium and nickel alloys, which is called the shape memory alloy. The alloy into a predetermined shape, 


after setting treatment, if the external force deformation, as long as slightly heated can restore the 


original appearance. This alloy has in many fields of applied. Such as U.S. Apollo spacecraft antenna, is 


the memory alloy; Shanghai first Medical College Affiliated Ninth People's hospital has the titanium memory alloy for 


female sterilization operation; it may also be for instrument, electronic devices and other fields.



Now is difficult smelting titanium of titanium the widespread use of the biggest obstacles. Because of the 


high melting point of titanium, titanium smelting to carried out at higher temperatures, and under the high 


temperature titanium chemistry became very lively, so smelting under the protection of inert gas, also do 


not use oxygen - containing materials, the smelting equipment and process are put forward very high 


requirements. The smelting of titanium 70% about in the manufacture of aircraft, missiles, spacecraft, man-


made satellites.



At present, the application of titanium is only a good beginning, the future of titanium metal free, so 


titanium was awarded the title of "twenty-first Century".

 



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