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Basic knowledge of titanium and classification of titanium alloy

                            Titanium and titanium alloy


A metal element, gray, capable of burning in nitrogen, a high melting point. Titanium and titanium based


 alloys are new structural materials, which are mainly used in aerospace industry and navigation industry.


From the discovery of titanium to pure products, which lasted more than 100 years. And titanium really get


 used to know its true colors, it is in 1940s after the thing.


Geographical surface ten km thick formation, containing 6/1000 titanium, 61 times more than copper.


 Literally from the ground picked up the soil, which contains a few thousandths of titanium and the world


 reserves of more than 10 million tons of titanium is not rare.


Beach million tons of sand, titanium and zirconium both than sandstone heavy mineral, mixed in the sand, 


after seawater millions of years day and night keep panning, relatively heavy ilmenite and zircon placer 


rushed together, on the edge of the long coastline, forming a a piece of titanium and zirconium seam. This 


bed is a black sand, there are usually a few centimeters to tens of centimeters thick.



With no magnetic titanium, titanium built nuclear submarines do not have to worry about magnetic mine 

attack.



In 1947, people started to smelt titanium in the factory. That year, production is only 2 tons. Production 


surged to 20 thousand tonnes in 1955. In 1972, the annual output reached 200 thousand tons. The hardness of


 titanium is similar to that of steel, and its weight is almost half that of the same volume of iron and


 steel, although it is slightly heavier than aluminum, its hardness is larger than that of 2. Now, in the 


space rockets and missiles, a lot of titanium instead of iron and steel. According to statistics, at 


present, the world's annual titanium for the navigation of the universe, has reached more than one thousand


 tons. Very fine titanium powder, or a good rocket fuel, so the titanium is known as the universe, space 

metal.


The heat resistance of titanium is very good, the melting point is as high as 1725. Under normal 


temperature, titanium can be safe and sound lying in various acid and alkali in solution. Even the most 


ferocious acid aqua regia, it cannot corrode. Titanium is not afraid of sea water, some people have put a 


piece of titanium sank to the bottom of the sea, after five years to take a look at the above stick a lot of


 small animals and sea plants, but there is no rust, still bright.



Now, people began to use titanium to create a submarine - titanium submarine. Because of its very strong,


 can withstand high pressure, the submarine can sail at a depth of 4500 meters deep in the sea.


development history


Titanium element found in 1789, 1908, Norway and the United States began with sulfuric acid production of 


titanium dioxide, 1910 in the laboratory for the first time by the method of sodium to titanium sponge, in 


1948 the United States DuPont with magnesium method into tons of titanium sponge production, which marks the


 titanium sponge that titanium industrialization production start.



China titanium industry started in 1950s. 1954, Beijing General Research Institute for nonferrous metals 


began for the preparation of sponge titanium, in 1956 the titanium as a strategic metal included in the 12


 year development plan, 1958 in Fushun realized industrial test of titanium sponge, the establishment of 


China's first titanium sponge production workshop, and non-ferrous metal processing plant in Shenyang 


established China first titanium processing material production workshop test.



In the 1960s and 1970s, under the unified plans of the state successively build in Zunyi Titanium factory on


 behalf of more than 10 titanium sponge production units, the construction of Baoji Nonferrous Metals 


Processing Factory as the representative of several titanium processing units, but also the formation of 


the Beijing General Research Institute for nonferrous metals as the representative of the scientific 


research strength and become the fourth after the United States, the former Soviet Union and Japan with a 


complete system of titanium industrial countries.



Around 1980, sponge titanium production in China reached 2800 tons. However, because at that time most 


people of titanium metal understanding insufficiency, the high price of titanium also limits the 

application 


of titanium, titanium processing material production is only 200 tons, China's titanium industry in trouble. 


In this case, by the then Vice Premier of the State Council Comrade Fang Yi advocate, support and Comrade 


Zhu Yuan Baohua, in July 1982 established interagency national titanium application leading group, 


specifically to coordinate the titanium industry development issues, contributed to the 20th century 80's to


 90 in the early period of China titanium sponge and titanium processing material production and sales 


booming and titanium industry, fast and steady development of a good situation.



In summary, the titanium industry in China has experienced three development stages: the initial stage of 


the 1950s, the construction period of the 60-70's and the initial development period of the 80-90's.. In the


 new century, thanks to the sustained and rapid development of the national economy, China's titanium 


industry has entered a period of rapid growth.


Titanium is resistant to corrosion, so it is often used in the chemical industry. In the past, a chemical 


reactor with hot nitric acid components are made of stainless steel. Stainless steel is also afraid that 


strong corrosive agent - Hot nitric acid, every six months, this component will be all replaced. Now, with


 titanium to make these parts, although the cost is more expensive than the stainless steel parts, but it 


can continue to use for five years, but it is much more cost-effective.


In the electrochemical process, titanium is a one - way valve metal, the potential is very negative, usually 

can not be used as an anode for decomposition of titanium.


The biggest drawback of titanium is difficult to extract. Mainly because of titanium at high temperature.


 The strong ability with oxygen and carbon, nitrogen and many other elements. Therefore, no matter in 


smelting or casting, people are careful to prevent these elements, "invasion" of titanium. In smelting



titanium, air and water, of course, is strictly prohibited, and even the commonly used in metallurgical


 alumina crucible is also prohibited, because the titanium will take oxygen from the alumina. Now, the use 


of magnesium and titanium tetrachloride in the inert gas - helium or argon in the four


Barium titanate crystals have such characteristics: when it is under pressure to change the shape of the 


time, will produce a current, a power will change the shape. So, the barium titanate is placed in the 


ultrasonic wave, the pressure will produce the current, the current generated by it can be measured by the


 size of the ultrasonic wave. In contrast, by using high frequency current, the ultrasonic wave can be 


generated. Now, almost all of the ultrasonic equipment, the use of barium titanate. In addition, barium 


titanate has many uses. For example: the railway workers put it in the bottom of the rail, when the train is


 measured by the pressure; the doctor made the pulse recorder with it. Barium titanate used in underwater


 detector is sharp eyes, it not only can see the fish, but also can see the underwater reef, icebergs and


 enemy submarines.

Smelting titanium, through complicated steps. The ilmenite into four titanium chloride, and then placed in a 


sealed stainless steel tank, filled with argon, which reacted with magnesium, get the "sponge titanium". The


 porous structure of the sponge titanium "is cannot be used directly, but also must put them in an electric


 furnace melting into a liquid, in order to cast titanium ingot. But this is easier said than done furnace


 manufacturing! In addition to the furnace air must be clean, but the trouble is, I could not find the 


crucible containing liquid titanium, because ordinary refractory materials containing oxide and oxygen, 


which will be taken from liquid titanium. Later, people finally invented a water-cooled copper crucible 


furnace. The electric stove only the central part of the region is very hot, the rest are cold, titanium in 


an electric furnace melting, flow to the water cooled copper crucible wall immediately cemented titanium 


ingot. This method has been able to produce tons of titanium block, but it would cost as can be imagined.


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